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Islamic Information

Faith of the Prophet's Parents

Regarding this the Ulama have presented these views:

They are closely linked with the period of nature (i.e. at that time there was no trace of divine religion). The nearest period to them is that of Hazrat Isa (Alayhis Salaam), but there is an interval of more than six centuries. During this period, the Injeel, revealed to Hazrat Isa (Alayhis Salaam) had undergone many distortions, and his followers were plunged into heresy by calling him the Son of God. How would the people of this period obtain guidance? What is more, Hazrat Isa (Alayhis Salaam) was sent as a Prophet to the Israelites only, and the people of Arabia were not included in his message and his followers. Thus under such conditions people of that period were not duty bound to his religion. Says Allah Almighty:
“And we are not to torment until We have sent a Messenger.” (S17:V15)
Commenting on this verse Imam Jalaluddeen Suyuti (On whom be peace) states
“The message did not reach his father and mother, then what is their sin?”
Since both of them had departed from this world before the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) began his prophetic mission. And since the Christians had distorted the religion of Hazrat Isa (Alayhis Salaam), and since Hazrat Isa (Alayhis Salaam) was sent for the Christians only, no prophets had come to them in their lifetime as is stated in the Holy Qur’an:
“And he shall be Messenger unto the children of Israel”. (S3: V 49)
Commenting on this Imam Fakhruddeen Razi (on whom be peace) says:
“This verse serves as a clear proof that Hazrat Isa (Alayhis Salaam) had come as a prophet to all the Israelites only” (Tafseer Kabeer)
From this it becomes clear that the Prophethood of Hazrat Isa (Alayhis Salaam) was not for the people of Arabia, but rather for the Israelites only In the light of this there is no question of a possibility of any punishment for the noble parents of the Holy prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) because the clear command of Allah Almighty is that “We do not punish anyone who has not been sent with a prophet.”
Thus the people of those times who remained free of all types of beliefs due to lack of information, and at no time had perpetrated polytheism and idol worship are in the light of the above verse not entitled to Divine punishment.
Thus the noble parents of the Holy prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) had not received the prophetic message of any prophet I e they had not rejected the message of any prophet. Therefore they are on the path of salvation.
This verse will give greater clarity to this issue Says Allah Almighty;
“(Allah sees) your movements among those who offer prostration” (S26:V219)
The famous commentator of the early part of second century Hijri, Imaam Mohamed Aloosi (May Allah be pleased with him) narrates the following narration of Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) from Hazrat Imaam Abu Naeem (on whom be peace) in commentary of this verse “That Hazrat Ibn Abbas (May Alah be pleased with him) explained the word “movement” as the blessed the pure and sublime people until it came into Hazrat Amina (May Allah be pleased with her). He further states:
1“Here the word’ SAJIDEEN” those who offer prostration denotes believers and the majority of the authentic scholars of the Ahle Sunnat have argued that the parents of the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) are believers. Those who believe otherwise regarding them (i.e. they do not accept them as believers). I have fear of such people being infidels:
Qazi Thanullan Pani Patti has mentioned many traditions in connection with this verse which endorse the above view. From these one tradition states:
Hazrat Anas(May Allah be pleased with him)reports that the Messenger of Allah Almighty (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: Whenever humanity was divided into two sections. I was placed by Allah Almighty in that section which was better My birth took place by my parents in such condition that not a single practice of the period of ignorance had mixed with mine. From the time of Hazrat Adam(On him be peace) none of my forefathers and mothers have been born in evil. I am better than all of you in terms of person and parentage”.
Imam Suyuti (May Allah be pleased with him) too has written proficiently on the subject, some excerpt of which are presented here.
In Sahih Bukhari, Hazrat Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) “In the children of Hazrat Adam (On him be peace) I have been transferred among the best people of every age until I have now been raised as a Prophet among the best of people:
Hazrat Ibn Abbas(May Allah be pleased with him)says:
“When some people from Quraish came to Hazrat Safiyyah bint Abdul Muttalib,(aunt of the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and began out of pried to talk about the time of ignorance, Hazrat Safiyyah (May Allah be pleased with her)replied. For the purpose of our honour it is sufficient that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is famous. To this they said. It does not matter because some times a good fruit bearing tree grows out of a barren, useless tree. When Hazrat Safiyyah (May Allah be pleased with her) mentioned this to the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) he expressed dislike and immediately ordered Hazrat Bilal(May Allah be pleased with him)to summon the people to the mosque. When the people assembled the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) got onto the pulpit and said” Oh people who am I?” All replied:” You are the Messenger of Allah (Peace be Upon Him)” He then said:” Describe my genealogy?” They said’ Muhammad’ son of Abdullah, son of Abdul Mutttalib; At this he enquired “What will happen to those people who degrade and insult my family? By Allah, in respect of origin and formal elegance I am better than everyone “.
Imaam Tibrani(On whom be peace ) in his book, and Imaam Baihaqi states in his narration from Hazrat Ayesha Siddiqah,(May Allah be pleased with her)that the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Hazrat Jibraeel (On him be peace)came to me and said I had searched the earth from East to West wherein I found no one more superior than thee, and in the tribes, the Banu Hashim to be most superior, i.e. in terms of person and genealogy you are most superior”.
Imaam ibn Hajr (On whom be peace) says: “Superiority is contrary to polytheism”. From this it becomes clear that all the forefathers were totally pure from all from of indecencies”.
Imaam Abdur Razzak(On whom be peace) has reported an authentic narration of Hazrat Ali (May Allah be pleased be with him)in his book” AL MUSANNIF”
“During every period there were at least seven Muslims inhabiting the entire earth at all times. At any given time, if there had been no believers on the earth, then the earth and those on it would have been destroyed”.
From these Ahadith an important fact is established, that all the illustrious fore-fathers and the mothers were believers.
What remains now are these words of Muslim Shareef:
“My father and yours are in Hell.” (Sahih Muslim – chapter: Faith). In this Hadith the word “Abb” – Father does not refer to the Holy Prophet’s (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) father but to his uncle. In Arabic usage for style and expression, the word “Abb” for uncle as well. Example of this is found in the Qur’an as well. Hazrat Yaqoob (On him be peace) is the son of Hazrat Ishaaq (On him be peace). Hazrat Ismail and Hazrat Ishaaq (On them be peace) are brothers. Thus in relation Hazrat Ismail (On him be peace) is the uncle of Hazrat Yaqoob (On him be peace). But the Holy Qur’an has used the word “Abb” to denote uncle.
When Hazrat Yaqoob (On him be peace) asked his sons: Whom will you worship after me?” They replied:
“He who is your Allah and of your fathers Ibrahim and Ismail and Ishaaq”. (S2:V133)
From this verse too it is proven the word “Abb” can be used to denote uncle. Thus the word “Abb” in the Hadith of Muslim Shareef refers to the Holy Prophet’s (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) uncle and not his father and therefore is in no way negating that the Holy Prophet’s (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) parents were not believers.
Imam Suyuti (May Allah be pleased with him) has reported the following:
“Allah Almighty granted life to the parents of the Holy Prophets (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) on his request and both declared faith in him”. Then he further states: “Allah Almighty is not powerless to do this for His Rasool (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). He can do whatever He pleases”.
For endorsing the above narration Imaam Suyuti (on whom be peace) has mentioned names of other jurists and commentators such as Imaam Ibn Shaheen. Hafez Abu Bakr Al Khateeb Al Baghdadi, Imam Suhaili, Imam Abdullah Qurtabi, Imam Muhib Tabari, Allama Naasiruddeen bin Al-Munier, and others, (May Allah be pleased with them).
Qazi Abu Bakr Ibn Arabi Al Baghdadi (May Allah be pleased with him) is a great jurist of the Maliki Mazhab, and an author of numerous books, e.g. Tarikh al-baghdadi in fourteen volumes and TAFSIR Ahkaam-ul-Qur’an, and he is also a person of outstanding education and bounty of Allah Almighty. In conclusion one of his verdicts (Fatwa) is cited here:
“Qazi Abu Bakr bin Arabi was asked to give a verdict on an issue regarding a person who says regarding the forefathers of the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) that they are inmates of Hell. The great scholar replied: A person who says such a thing is cursed, citing the following verse of the Holy Qur’an to support this view: “Undoubtedly, those who annoy Allah Almighty and His Messenger, Allah’s curse is upon them.” (S33:V57) What bigger cause of annoyance is there than anyone saying such things about the Parents of the Holy Prophets (Peace be upon him).
As has been mentioned previously, Bibi Halima (May Allah be pleased with her) had returned the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) to his mother Bibi Amina (May Allah be pleased with her). When he was six years old, his mother became certain that her beloved son, the apple of her eye, was able to bear the hardships of a long journey, she sought permission from her father-in-law, Hazrat Abdul Muttalib, to travel to Yathrib to visit the grave of her beloved husband, who had passed away there before the birth of their beloved son. (Yathrib is today known as Madina.)
Hazrat Abdul Muttalib could refuse permission to his dauther-in-law to travel to Yathrib. She then departed for Yathrib with her beloved son. One of her maid servants Umm-e-Ayman whose real name was Barkat accompanied them. She was an Abyssinian whom the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) had received in legacy from his father. This small caravan stopped at Banu Adi Bin Najjaar who were kinsmen of Abdul Muttalib and stayed with them for almost one month. During this time some strange incidents had taken place.
On one occasion a Jew saw the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and asked him for his name. When he heard the name he began to look at the child’s back and began saying: “this is the Prophet of this Ummah”. He then went to tell his Jewish scholars about what he had seen. When similar incidents of this type began to take place, Hazrat Amina (Allah be pleased with her) decided not to stay there any longer and began preparations for the return journey to Makkah.
After leaving Madina, when the small caravan arrived in Abwa, Bibi Amina (May Allah be pleased with her) took ill. When the sickness became worse, and when she saw her beloved son standing at her head side, she recited some verses, the meaning of which is as follows: “If what I had seen in a dream is true, then you would be sent as a Prophet to the entire creation. You would be sent as a Prophet in the religion of Hazrat Ibrahim (On him be peace). I am pleading with you in the name of Allah to abstain from idolatry and not to befriend these idols by joining others”. She further said:
“Every living soul shall have a taste of death. Every new thing shall become old. Thought I am on the verge of death but I would be remembered eternally because I have given birth to a pure baby”.
Here it is worth remembering that what must have gone through the mind of this loving mother when placing her final gaze on her beloved son, cannot be truly explained in words. He was already deprived of the protection of his father. Now he was about to lose the protective care of his mother, and that too, during a journey, under such helpless conditions far away from all kith and kin. In short, Hazrat Amina (May Allah be pleased with her) handed over her beloved son to Allah Almighty and departed from this transitory world and was buried at Abwa which is found between Makkah and Madina. Thereafter, the obedient Umm-e-Ayman separated the tearful son, the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) from the grave of his beloved mother and departed for Makkah. On reaching Makkah she informed Abdul Muttalib about the sad events which plunged him into intense sorrow. He now took the matchless pearl, Hazrat Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) under his care. The chief of all the Prophets, the most sublime creation of Allah Almighty now began to live under the kind guardianship of his grandfather.

 

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